In addition to creating a federal system, the Constitution also limits the national government by dividing power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Under the separation of powers, each branch has specific duties in the government.
How does the Constitution limit the power of the federal government?
The U.S. Constitution achieved limited government through a separation of powers: "horizontal" separation of powers distributed power among branches of government (the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary, each of which provide a check on the powers of the other); "vertical" separation of powers (federalism) ...
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Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution of the United States puts limits on the powers of the states. States cannot form alliances with foreign governments, declare war, coin money, or impose duties on imports or exports.