atman means 'eternal self'. the atman refers to the real self beyond ego or false self. it is often referred to as 'spirit' or 'soul' and indicates our true self or essence which underlies our existence.
there are many interesting perspectives on the self in hinduism ranging from the self as eternal servant of god to the self as being identified with god. the understanding of the self as eternal supports the idea of reincarnation in that the same eternal being can inhabit temporary bodies.
the idea of atman entails the idea of the self as a spiritual rather than material being and thus there is a strong dimension of hinduism which emphasises detachment from the material world and promotes practices such as asceticism. thus it could be said that in this world, a spiritual being, the atman, has a human experience rather than a human being having a spiritual experience.
1. ford: gerald ford´s presidency, from 1974 to 1977, faced high inflation, named it public enemy nº1, and created the win program (whip inflation now).
2. carter: president from 1977 to 1981, carter had controversial poitions over abortion, but yet, he enforce the roe vs wade decision, which had pro-choice content.
3. reagan. for his eloquency and powerful speeches in his mandates, from 1981 to 1989, reagan earned this nickname, “the great communicator” .
4. george h w bush: despite many presidents had important roles in managing and trying to end the cold war, it was in bush sr's mandate that the berlin wall was materially destroyed, and he was visited by gorbachev in the uspresident from 1989 to 1993.
5. clinton: defense of marriage act. clinton signed this controvesial act, which defined marriage and spouses in strict heterosexual perspective, that was later declard unconstitutional by the us supreme court.
6. george w bush: in the begining of his presidency, which lasted until 2009, bush jr faced the greatest terrorist attacks in us and probably the worlds history, in september, 11 of 2001.
7. obama: in attempts to cease a great economical crisis, barack obama signed the controversial recovery act in february 2009, which handled 780-billion dollars.
d is the best answer for this question.