in the 1800s, chinese workers migrated to the united states, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry. chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the american west, and as chinese laborers grew successful in the united states, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right. as the numbers of chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-chinese sentiment among other workers in the american economy. this finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of chinese workers to the united states, and threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the united states and china.
world war i began in 1914, after the assassination of archduke franz ferdinand, and lasted until 1918. during the conflict, germany, austria-hungary, bulgaria and the ottoman empire (the central powers) fought against great britain, france, russia, italy, romania, japan and the united states (the allied powers). to new military technologies and the horrors of trench warfare, world war i saw unprecedented levels of carnage and destruction. by the time the war was over and the allied powers claimed victory, more than 16 million people—soldiers and civilians alike—were dead.
it took two men to wrestle rome back from chaos and turn a republic into an empire. in the first century bc, rome was a republic. power lay in the hands of the senate, elected by roman citizens. but the senators were fighting for power between themselves.