the sentence does not violate the phrase structure second rule (introduced by noam chomsky) because noun phrases consist of a determiner such as a, the or every, and a noun. in the sentence, the noun phrase the cake includes a determiner (the) and a noun (cake).
on the other hand, the first rule indicates that a sentence encloses a noun phrase, followed by a verb phrase. the example sentence can be analysed as follows:
john (n) + ate (v) + the (det) + cake (n).
autobiography of an ex-colored man is told from the first-person point of view of an unnamed male narrator. he starts his tale by stating that he is going to reveal the great secret of his life. he first takes the reader to his childhood in georgia where he was raised by a single mother. he was dissapointed in his own color.