The mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer are transformation, transduction, and conjugation.
This process can allow different species of bacteria to become immune or pathogenic from the DNA of another. The eukaryotes have shown some level of DNA sequencing from bacteria- acrhaea.
The endosymbiosis of mitochondria and plastids is a form of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes, for example.
In Bacteria and Archaea, the cells don't contain a nucleus. These groups have different Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Moreover, Bacteria and Archaea have different cell walls (with peptidoglycans in Bacteria)
In Eukarya, the cells have a nucleus.
The prokaryotes play important ecological roles, these organisms help to synthesize vitamins in the digestive system of animals and they are required for the fermentation process
The horizontal gene transfer is the transmission of genetic information between no related species. In prokaryotes, the process of horizontal gene transfer is given by the use of DNA fragments derived from plasmids to integrate them into their genomes. In eukaryotes, the horizontal gene transference is a less common process
halophile: organisms that live in salt
extremophile: organisms that live in extreme conditions
thermophile: organisms that live in high temperature
methanogen: organisms that produce methane
decomposer: organisms that decompose organic compounds
nitrogen fixation: that fix nitrogen in organic compounds
aerobic: that survive in oxygen conditions
anaerobic: that survive without oxygen
photoautotroph: that produce food using light
photoheterotroph: that use light for energy
chemoautotroph: that produce food using chemical compounds
chemoheterotroph: that use chemical compounds for energy
transformation, transduction and conjugation are gentic processes in bacteria
binary fission: asexual reproduction in archaea and bacteria
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism are ecological relationships among populations
Briefly describe the cellular events responsible for the refractory period (hint: discuss the mechanism of repolarization):
The buildup of potassium during repolarization into hyperpolarization, that makes it more difficult for the stimulus to reach its threshold, is the events responsible for the refractory period. It is measured for the earthworm as the largest interval wherein the action potential (second spike) cannot be generated.
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi. It is caused by an erroneous hypersensitive immune response, which causes problems with the lungs, such as inflammation and especially bronchoconstriction, which makes it difficult to breathe in and out. Thick mucus is formed in the bronchi. The mucosal response is caused by inflammation caused by allergens or microbes (viruses, bacteria), prolonged irritation triggered by physical exertion or by unknown factors. For example, animal dust, pollen, dust mites, certain foods, cold air, exercise and stress have been found to trigger an asthma attack.
Six percent of the adult population suffers from asthma, but a significant proportion of asthma is mild and does not require daily treatment. However, a sudden attack may require hospitalization.
Anti-diuretic hormone or ADH is a hormone which helps in reabsorption of water, maintaining blood volume, blood pressure and homeostasis in the body.
Aldosterone is the hormone which helps in the reabsorption of the electrolyte in the tubules of the kidney.
Aldosterone acts by opening the ion channels which allow the re-absorption of electrolytes like Na⁺ ions, Cl⁻ ions whereas ADH acts by opening the aquaporin-2 channels in the collecting duct which allow the absorption of water molecules from the solution.
These hormone helps forms the concentrated urine as the electrolyte and water get re-absorbed.