Explain the process by which the ph of seawater is maintained ('buffered') at the average value of 8.1. include in your discussion the mechanism (chemical reactions) that: a. lowers ph when it increases above 8.1


The three type of tectonic plate boundaries are:

Convergent- two plates are moving towards each-other. Forms volcanoes, mountains and can cause earthquakes too.

Divergent - two plates are moving away from eachother. The space that is created between them is filled with lava from the mantle which cools to become part of the crust. These areas are hotspots.

Transform - two plates are moving against eachother (one down, one up etc.) They cause minor earthquakes.
Inflation can mean a rise in price of goods as well as services like spending more in filling up the gas tank. It then would increase the cost of living. The ways to have protection from the effects of inflation is to increase the earning ability as well as the income like annual raise or a promotion. Another is investing in stock market and through Treasury Inflated Protected Securities and Series I Bonds.
During summer season as land gets heated up, the air rises and the low-pressure area is created on the land and on the other hand high-pressure area is created in the Indian Ocean. Air moves from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas. The low-pressure land system attracts south-east trade winds but after crossing equator due to Coriolis force, winds turn right towards the low-pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These winds start blowing in a south-westerly direction and enter the Indian peninsula as the southwest monsoon. As it reaches India monsoons are divided into two branches namely - Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch.
Attribute/ relationship inheritance is when characteristics of DNA are passed on to offspring or the next generation. Not all attributes are visible or expressed and yet can still be passed on generationally. Sometimes hese characteristics might seem inocuous like red hair or green eyes, but other certainly serve a purpose. A good example can be the amount of melanin in a person's skin. Heavy pigmentation will limit the skin's exposure to ultraviolet rays from sun light, certainly an important trait for people living closer to the equator while less melanin means more efficient absorption of sunlight in areas where there is very little sun light, like placescloser to the Earth's poles.

The mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer are transformation, transduction, and conjugation.


This process can allow different species of bacteria to become immune or pathogenic from the DNA of another. The eukaryotes have shown some level of DNA sequencing  from bacteria- acrhaea.

The endosymbiosis of mitochondria and plastids is a form of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes, for example.

In Bacteria and Archaea, the cells don't contain a nucleus. These groups have different Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Moreover, Bacteria and Archaea have different cell walls (with peptidoglycans in Bacteria)  

In Eukarya, the cells have a nucleus.

The prokaryotes play important ecological roles, these organisms help to synthesize vitamins in the digestive system of animals and they are required for the fermentation process

The horizontal gene transfer is the transmission of genetic information between no related species. In prokaryotes, the process of horizontal gene transfer is given by the use of DNA fragments derived from plasmids to integrate them into their genomes. In eukaryotes, the horizontal gene transference is a less common process

halophile: organisms that live in salt  

extremophile: organisms that live in extreme conditions  

thermophile: organisms that live in high temperature  

methanogen: organisms that produce methane  

decomposer: organisms that decompose organic compounds  

nitrogen fixation: that fix nitrogen in organic compounds  

aerobic:  that survive in oxygen conditions  

anaerobic: that survive without oxygen  

photoautotroph: that produce food using light

photoheterotroph: that use light for energy

chemoautotroph: that produce food using chemical compounds

chemoheterotroph: that use chemical compounds for energy

transformation, transduction and conjugation are gentic processes in bacteria  

binary fission: asexual reproduction in archaea and bacteria  

mutualism, commensalism, parasitism are ecological relationships among populations

Briefly describe the cellular events responsible for the refractory period (hint: discuss the mechanism of repolarization):

The buildup of potassium during repolarization into hyperpolarization, that makes it more difficult for the stimulus to reach its threshold, is the events responsible for the refractory period. It is measured for the earthworm as the largest interval wherein the action potential (second spike) cannot be generated.

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi. It is caused by an erroneous hypersensitive immune response, which causes problems with the lungs, such as inflammation and especially bronchoconstriction, which makes it difficult to breathe in and out. Thick mucus is formed in the bronchi. The mucosal response is caused by inflammation caused by allergens or microbes (viruses, bacteria), prolonged irritation triggered by physical exertion or by unknown factors. For example, animal dust, pollen, dust mites, certain foods, cold air, exercise and stress have been found to trigger an asthma attack.  

Six percent of the adult population suffers from asthma, but a significant proportion of asthma is mild and does not require daily treatment. However, a sudden attack may require hospitalization.

Anti-diuretic hormone or ADH is a hormone which helps in reabsorption of water, maintaining blood volume, blood pressure and homeostasis in the body.

Aldosterone is the hormone which helps in the reabsorption of the electrolyte in the tubules of the kidney.

Aldosterone acts by opening the ion channels which allow the re-absorption of electrolytes like Na⁺ ions, Cl⁻ ions whereas  ADH acts by opening the aquaporin-2 channels in the collecting duct which allow the absorption of water molecules from the solution.

These hormone helps forms the concentrated urine as the electrolyte and water get re-absorbed.

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