using the product immediately in the next step
An endergonic reaction requires input of energy to drive the reaction since it is not spontaneous. Using the product in the next step drives the equilibrium towards producing more products in accordance with LeChateliers principle. The immediate use of products drives the forward reaction hence the reaction continues to progress in the forward direction.
The entropy of the products of a reaction is always greater than the entropy of the starting materials
The second Law of Thermodynamics says that entropy always increases
A + B > AB
A and B that were completely arranged in their structures had to be completely messy to form compound AB
When an isolated system reaches a maximum entropy configuration, it can no longer undergo changes: it has reached equilibrium.
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Maintaining a high starting-material concentration can render this reaction favorable.
A reaction is favorable when ΔG < 0 (exergonic). ΔG depends on the temperature and on the reaction of reactants and products as established in the following expression:
ΔG = ΔG° + R.T.lnQ
ΔG° is the standard Gibbs free energy
R is the ideal gas constant
T is the absolute temperature
Q is the reaction quotient
To make ΔG < 0 when ΔG° > 0 we need to make the term R.T.lnQ < 0. Since T is always positive we need lnQ to be negative, what happens when Q < 1. Q < 1 implies the concentration of reactants being greater than the concentration of products, that is, maintaining a high starting-material concentration will make Q < 1.
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A. The products of the change are different from the starting
Whenever there is a physical change it may just affect the phase change but the properties remains the same. Whenever there is an occurrence of a chemical change, it was indicated by some of these things such as,The products are exactly different from the products.Chemical properties of these reactants are entirely different from that of the products.Chemical composition as well as the physical properties of the reactants and the products will change
A neutron and a large nucleus.
a nucleus that has a greater mass number than the starting materials
Nuclear fission is a process which involves the conversion of a heavier nuclei into two or more small and stable nuclei along with the release of energy.
Nuclear fusion is a process which involves the conversion of two small nuclei to form a heavy nuclei along with release of energy.