The answer is C: flooding. Ice jams and snowmelt can help cause flash floods. A deep snowpack increases runoff produced by melting snow. Heavy spring rains falling on melting snowpack can produce disastrous flash flooding. Melting snowpack may also contribute to flash floods produced by ice jams on creeks and rivers. Thick layers of ice often form on streams and rivers during the winter. Melting snow and/or warm rain running into the streams may lift and break this ice, allowing large chunks of ice to jam against bridges or other structures. This causes the water to rapidly rise behind the ice jam. If the water is suddenly released, serious flash flooding could occur downstream. Huge chunks of ice can be pushed onto the shore and through houses and buildings.